A Secret History of Coffee, Coca & Cola


Selected Bibliography

Schlendrian, Liesgen, and the Chorus

Quotations are from Kaffee Kantate: Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht, by Johann Sebastian Bach and Christian Friedrich Henrici (1734).
BWV 211. (Coffee Cantata: Be Silent, Don’t Chatter, Trans. Sareeta Amrute.)

From Coffee to Caffeine
Watts, Henry. A Dictionary of Chemistry Vol. I. London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1863.
Robinson, Edward. The Early English Coffee House. 1893. New Zealand: Dolphin Press, Christchurch, 1972.
Ukers, William H. All About Coffee. 2nd ed. New York: The Tea & Coffee Trade Journal Company, 1935.
Birnbaum, E. “Vice Triumphant: The Spread of Coffee and Tobacco in Turkey.” Durham University Journal, December 1956: 21–27.
Hattox, Ralph S. Coffee and Coffeehouses: Origins of a Social Beverage in Medieval Near East. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1985.
Spiller, Gene A., ed. Caffeine. Los Altos, CA: Health Research and Studies Center and Sphera Foundation, 1998.
Pendergrast, Mark. Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
Wild, Antony. Coffee: A Dark History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004.

On Kola
Menninger, Edwin. Edible Nuts of the World. Stuart, FL: Horticultural Books, 1977.
Rosengarten, Frederic Jr. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker and Company, 1984.
Abaka, Edmund. Kola Is God’s Gift. Ohio University Press, 2005.

On the Origin of Coca-Cola
“Coca-Cola Advertisement.” Atlanta Journal. May 29, 1886; June 16, 1886; January 7, 1887; June 16, 1887.
“Coca-Cola Advertisement.” Scientific American. Vol. XCV No.1. July 7, 1906: 15.
Kahn, E.J., Jr. The Big Drink: The Story of Coca-Cola. New York: Random House, 1960.
Munsey, Cecil. The Illustrated Guide to the Collectibles of Coca-Cola. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1972.
Pendergrast, Mark. For God, Country & Coca-Cola. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

On Coca
The First Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci: Translated From the Rare Original Edition (Florence, 1505–6). London: Bernard Quaritch, 1885.
The Third Part of the Works of M’Abraham Cowley, Being His Six Books of Plants. London: Printed for Charles Harper, 1689.
Mariani, Vin. Coca Erythroxylon: Its Uses in the Treatment of Disease. Paris: Mariani & Company, 1884.
Mortimer, W. Golden. History of Coca: “The Divine Plant” of the Incas. 1901. California: AND/OR Press, 1974.
Weil, Andrew. “The New Politics of Coca.” New Yorker. May 15, 1995: 70–80.

From Coca to Cocaine
Scherzer, Karl. Voyage of the Novara: Narrative of the Circumnavigation of the Globe. Vol. 3. London: Saunders, Otley, & Co., 1863.
Knapp, Herman. Cocaine and Its Use in Ophthalmic and General Surgery. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885.
“The Indiscriminate Use of Cocaine.” New York Medical Journal. December 28, 1889: 719–20.
“The Growing Menace of the Use of Cocaine.” New York Times. August 2, 1908: 1.
Congressional Record 50, pt. 3: 2191–2211. 63rd United States Congress First Session. June 26, 1913.
Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books, 1961.
Taylor, Arnold. American Diplomacy and the Narcotics Traffic, 1900–1939. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1969.
Kennedy, Joseph. Coca Exotica: The Illustrated Story of Cocaine. New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 1985.
Musto, David. The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control. Oxford University Press, 1999.
Spillane, Joseph. Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace in the United States, 1884–1920. John Hopkins University Press, 2000.
Gootenberg, Paul. Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Notes on the Illustrations Thus Far. . .

The drawing of Eazy-E is based on a photograph by Ernie Paniccioli. Kubrick Demonstrates How to Shoot the Coke Machine is of a photo from The Stanley Kubrick Archives (Taschen), edited by Alison Castle, used with permission of the Stanley Kubrick Estate. Coca Kola Girl is based on a photo by Daniela Crespo. Three Surgeons is based on a photo from the Bellevue Hospital Archives, New York City. Newsboy is based on a photo by Lewis Wickes Hine/Library of Congress; the Newspaper he holds is “Negro Cocaine ‘Fiends’ are a New Southern Menace: Murder and Insanity Increasing Among Lower Class Blacks Because They Have Taken to ‘Sniffing’ Since Deprived of Whisky by Prohibition” by Williams, Edward H. New York Times. Feb. 8, 1914: SM12.

About the Correspondence

Some letters have been edited for length, but great effort was made to ensure the writers’ intentions and meanings have not been interfered with, distorted, or misrepresented. The letters are drawn in pencil, pen, and color pencil, based on the author’s photographs of original documents from:
Subject files of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. Record Group 170: Boxes 20, 23, 63, 64, 141, 170. US National Archives, MD.

H.J. Anslinger Papers, 1835–1970. Accession 1959-0006H, Historical Collections and Labor Archives, Special Collections Library, University Libraries, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Maywood, Anslinger, and Hayes
Depositions of Dr. Louis Schaefer and Hugo DuBois taken Oct. 19, 1910. United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca Cola. 191 F. 431 (E.D. Tenn. 1911), rev’d, 241 US 265 (1916).
“Other Sales, Mergers.” New York Times. May 12, 1959: 49.
McWilliams, John C. “Unsung Partner Against Crime: Harry J. Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 1930–1962.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. 113, No. 2. April 1989: 207–236.
Lande, Adolf. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. International Organization, Vol. 16, No. 4. Cambridge University Press, 1962.
“Ralph Hayes, Noted Fund-Raiser; Led New York Community Trust.” New York Times. June 22, 1977: 28.
May, Clifford D. “How Coca-Cola Obtains Its Coca.” New York Times. July 1, 1988: D1.
Miller, Michael W. “Quality Stuff: Firm Is Peddling Cocaine, and Deals Are Legit—Stepan Imports Coca Leaves for Medicinal Purposes and a Very Special Client.” Wall Street Journal. October 27, 1994: A1.
Chauvin, Lucien O. “Peruvian Firm Exports Coca Leaves.” Miami Herald. July 4, 2003.
Gootenberg, Paul. “Secret Ingredients: The Politics of Coca in US–Peruvian Relations, 1915–65.” Journal of Latin American Studies 36. Cambridge University Press, 2004: 233–265.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
esp. Articles 26, 27, 49. United Nations: New York.

The author would like to acknowledge reportage of the Single Convention treaty by the Andean Information Network (www. ain-bolivia.org); and the Drug Law Reform Project of the Transnational Institute (www.tni.org) and the Washington Office on Latin America (www.wola.org).

Darlington, Lee.“History of Erythroxylum and Notes on Diseases and Pests at Kauai Field Site.” Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Fusarium Biocontrol. Beltsville, MD. October 28–31, 1996: 43.
“Characterization of a Vascular Wilt of Erythroxylum coca . . .” Sands, D.C.; Ford, E.J.; Miller, R.V.; Sally, B.K.; McCarthy, M.K.; Anderson, T.W.; Weaver, M.B.; Morgan, C.T.; Pilgeram, A.L.; and Darlington, L.C. Plant Disease, Vol. 81 No. 5, 1997: 501–504.
Golden, Tim. “Fungus Considered As a Tool to Kill Coca in Colombia.” New York Times. July 6, 2000.
Public Law 109–469—Dec. 29, 2006 Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 2006. [H.R. 6344]
E-mail exchange with Jim Cartwright (University Archivist, University of Hawaii) and Dr. Jeri Ooka (Mycologist, UH). April 2009.
Phone interview with Dr. Jeri Ooka (Mycologist, Kauai Agricultural Research Center, University of Hawaii). November 17, 2010.
Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops. National Research Council. The National Academies Press, DC, 2011.

Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2007. United Nations Publication ISBN: 978-92-1-148224-9. New York, 2008.
International Coffee Agreement September 2007 and Coffee Market Report March 2008 International Coffee Organization.
United Nations World Drug Report 2009. United Nations Publication ISBN: 978-92-1-148240-9. New York, 2009.
Annual Report Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2007, The Coca-Cola Company. US Securities and Exchanges Commission. Washington, DC, 2008: 42-3. (12 fl. oz. of Coca-Cola weighs approx. 368.8 grams [Ohaus balance, 5/5/09]).
Memoria 2007 (Annual Report 2007). La Empresa Nacional de la Coca S.A., Peru, 2008: 21.
Sabol, William J.; West, Heather C. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2007. US Department of Justice NCJ224280. Dec. 2008: 22.
National Drug Control Strategy FY2008. Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House, February 2007.
Price per pound: Est. 500,000 US drug prisoners [Mauer, Marc; Ryan S. King. “A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society.” The Sentencing Project. Washington, DC, September 2007]; the average person held in state and federal custody (by race, sex, age) was a black male of 25–29 years [Sabol and West: 19]; such a man’s average weight was roughly 190 pounds [“Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: US Population, 1999–2002.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. AD No. 361, July 7, 2005: Table 30]; then the total weight of drug war prisoners was, very roughly, 95 million pounds.


Note by the secretary-general on the proposal of amendments by Bolivia to article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e), of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 (E/2009/78). U.N. ECOSOC. May 15, 2009.

Press conference. Pablo Solon, Representative of Bolivia. June 24, 2011. UN Webcast: www.UNmultimedia.org/tv/webcast/ [accessed 2/21/12]

Memoria 2010 (Annual Report 2010). La Empresa Nacional de la Coca S.A., Peru, 2012: 26.

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